The Earth as a planet: its composition, internal dynamics, and surface evolution. Rotation, magnetic field, plate tectonics, earthquakes, volcanoes. The ocean, atmosphere, and biosphere as components of a varying geo-environment. Not for credit in the Faculties of Science and Applied Science. No background in Science or Mathematics is required.
An introduction to the Earth with emphasis on its industrial and aesthetic resources. Rocks, minerals, gold, diamonds, sediments, fossils, oil and gas, canyons, and volcanoes and the processes that create them. Not for credit in the Faculties of Science and Applied Science. No background in Science or Mathematics is required.
Earth's environmental history and aspects of contemporary global change. Plate tectonics, mass extinction, and the Gaia Hypothesis. Not for credit in the Faculties of Science or Applied Science.
An introduction to the oceans and processes that have shaped them, their composition and movement, waves, tides, beaches, interactions with the atmosphere and human exploitation of the non-living resources. Not for credit in the Faculties of Science or Applied Science. No background in Science or Mathematics is required.
An introduction to life in the oceans, its variety and evolution; primary producers and their links to the environment, zooplankton, marine communities, living marine resources and their role in today's world. Not for credit in the Faculties of Science or Applied Science.
Origin, diagenesis and geochemistry of sediments and sedimentary rocks.
A quantitative and laboratory-based study of the chemical and physical processes behind the origins and nature of igneous rocks. We examine the formation of magma in different tectonic setting and look at global patterns of magmatism. The course centers on the interpretation of phase diagrams, chemical and isotopic data, and rock textures. An important part of the course is petrographic examinations of rocks in thin sections.
Deciphering lithospheric processes as recorded by the mineralogy, chemistry and textures of metamorphosed rocks.
Analysis and interpretation of natural deformation.
The fossil record of adaptation and extinction emphasizing the interaction of biological and geological processes. Not for credit in any Earth and Ocean Sciences program but allowable as credit towards the Earth Science component in the general science program.
Application of chemical thermodynamics to problem solving in the earth sciences. Geochemical tools are developed for: low-T aqueous geochemistry, high-T, high-P processes in the lithosphere, ore-deposit formation, and for prediction of geochemical reaction rates in all environments.
Recording and processing geological data in the field. Held within the three weeks following April examinations after third year. A special fee is to be paid by January 31.
Introduction to theory of groundwater flow; flow nets; regional groundwater resource evaluation; well hydraulics; role of groundwater in geologic processes.
Landform development; morphological and historical analysis of landforms; applications in engineering and resource development.
Introduction to economic geology and models related to mineral exploration. Study includes typical deposit types and their plate tectonic setting.
An overview of the geology and tectonic evolution of North America; comparisons and contrasts between Precambrian rocks of the North American craton and Phanerozoic belts of the Cordilleran, Appalachian, Ouachita and Innuitian orogens; interrelations between sedimentation, deformation, metamorphism and magmatism in a plate tectonic context.
Analytical methods in geochemistry, major and trace element geochemistry, radiogenic isotopes, geochemistry of seawater, the mantle, basalts, subduction zones, sedimentary rocks, continental crust.
Mechanisms and processes of past and future global environmental and climate change.
Principles of geophysical survey design, data acquisition, processing and interpretation with emphasis on near-surface problems. Magnetic, seismic reflection/refraction, electromagnetic and ground penetrating radar surveys. Case history analysis of environmental and geotechnical problems.
Introduction to tensor calculus and continuum mechanics. Stress, strain and strain-rate tensors. Mass, momentum and energy balance. Applications to problems of geophysical heat transport, elasticity and fluid dynamics illustrated using MATLAB.
Hooke's law for isotropic continua, elastic wave equation, reflection and refraction methods for imaging the Earth's internal structure, plane waves in an infinite medium and interaction with boundaries, body wave seismology, inversion of travel-time curves, generalized ray theory, crustal seismology, surface waves and earthquake source studies.
Continuous and discrete Fourier transforms, correlation and convolution, spectral estimates, optimum least-squares filters, deconvolution and prediction, frequency-wave number filtering. A practical course on computer techniques applied to the analysis of a wide range of geophysical phenomena.
Diversity among the planets and moons of the solar system; integrating concepts across scientific disciplines, including geology, geophysics, and atmospheric science to understand how planets evolve.
Physical and chemical processes and their controls on the distribution of plankton in the ocean.
Physical, chemical, and biological processes in the ocean and their interaction with climate and marine food-webs.
Approved and supervised technical work experience in an industrial, university or government setting for a minimum of 14 weeks. Normally taken in the Summer Session (Terms 1 and 2) following second year. Technical report required. Restricted to students admitted to the Co-operative Education Program in Earth and Ocean Sciences.
Approved and supervised technical work experience in an industrial, university or government setting for a minimum of 14 weeks. Normally taken in Winter Session (Term 1) in third year. Technical report required. Restricted to students admitted to the Co-operative Education Program in Earth and Ocean Sciences.